Pollination Papers – Judith Bronstein
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In: Sano S. Planaltina, Embrapa Cerrados. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society — Stacciarini J. Boletim Goiano de Geografia 90— Stiles F. The Auk — The levels of inbreeding depression are negatively associated with autonomous self-pollination. Evolution of self-pollination in C. This present study, integrating with previous results, will help us to comprehensively recognise and understand the pollination system and reproductive characteristics of Clematis.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London.
Assessing the impact of pollinator and disperser disruption on plant extinction. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. II English edition. Genetic models. After applying these selection criteria to the species present at Los Ruiles Na- tional Reserve, we recovered 21 plant species, most of them 17 species belonging to dif- ferent plant genera. Corollas were then photographed from a perpendicular perspective to mimic the view of a pollinator approaching to the plane of the corolla.
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Pictures were transformed to black and white so that flowers and outlines were clearly distinguished from white backgrounds. We quantified corolla complexity as the fractal dimension of the corolla outline in Benoit 1. The concept of fractal dimension D  can be used as a simple descriptor of complex- ity for any object. By using calculation methods for identification of self-similar patterns in 2D graphic objects, this method provides a useful approach to detect scale-invariant prop- erties where traditional statistical approaches fail.
We estimated the fractal dimension of the corolla outline through the mass dimension procedure. Briefly, this method consists in finding the mass radius mr , that is, the number of points within a circle of radio r in the outline of interest and to estimate the changing mr data across circles of increasing radius from the center of the figure.
If the figure of interest has fractal structure, plotting the logarithm of m versus the logarithm of r will result in a straight line with slope Dm , where D is the fractal dimension. In this way, low D-values will be observed in flowers with simple non-dissected corollas because the number of white points will not increase from the centre to the periphery of flowers.
On the contrary, the number of white points interspersed in the corolla outline will increase from the centre to the periphery of flowers with complex dissected corollas. To reduce the measurement error attributable to vari- ation in the initial values of parameter estimations i. All anal- yses were performed in Benoit 1. Botto-Mahan 35 5 Results Fractal dimension D-values ranged from 1.
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As no abrupt decrease of D-values was evident Figure 1a , the fractal dimension was homogeneously distributed in the plant community. GLM mod- els were adjusted for each parameter linear and quadratic using Poisson-distributed er- rors and log link using D as predictor variable, and maximum likelihood as estimation method. This result implies that interspecific variation in corolla complexity, estimated through the fractal dimension, accounts at least in part for differences in the number of pollinator species attracted to flowers. This result indicates that flowers with intermediate complexity tend to receive the highest number of pollinator species, and plants with minimal and maximal complex- ity received a lower number of them.
As most plant species belong to different genera with the exception of two pairs of species, Anagallis Primulaceae and Hypericum Clu- siaceae , phylogenetic effects may have a minor importance in the resulting pattern. But why should pollinators be less attracted to flowers with high or low corolla complexity? One potential line of reasoning relates to pollinator specialization and attraction. The low number of pollinator species observed in the left side of Figure 1b may be a direct con- sequence of the low attraction provoked by simple and non-dissected corollas.
On the other hand, it is likely that highly dissected and complex corollas tend to be visited by specialized pollinators with phenotypes that permit them to manipulate adequately the flower in order to obtain rewards see . A second line of reasoning relates to the tradeoffs faced by pollinators when visiting and manipulating flowers.
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As flower shape is a character that provides attraction to pol- linators and at the same time participates in the mechanical fit with pollinators [10, 11], there is a potential conflict for plants between attracting pollinators and providing an ad- equate phenotype that adjust the flower-pollinator interface. Evidence from pollinator preference provides support to such dichotomy.
Many laboratory and field studies have demonstrated that pollinators tend to prefer flower models with narrow petals and dis- sected corollas e.
Flowers with dissected outlines are probably more detectable to moving insects because they create a greater on—off stimulus in the com- pound eye [28, 29], and provide a reliable informative cue about the quantity and quality of pollen and nectar reward. The silhouettes depicted from left to right along the X-axis correspond to Anagallis arvensis Primulaceae , Chamaelemun mixtum Asteraceae , and Sisyrinchium graminifolium Iridaceae.
Under such circum- stances, pollinators may face an obvious conflict in their foraging decisions, that can be solved, at least in part, by preferring intermediate floral phenotypes that provide the best of two options. Botto-Mahan 37 patterns of organization that often escape to the eye of mechanistic approaches.
In this chapter we have shown that pollinator attraction, a critical element in pollination ecol- ogy, can be further understood under the perspective of complex systems and flower fractality. Even though flower complexity is frequently invoked as an organismic prop- erty detectable by pollinators, attempts to measure complexity are almost lacking in the literature, in part, because complexity means different things for different people. In this chapter, we argue that it is time for pollination ecologists to search for common definitions and move beyond the reductionist focus to examine how much we might be missing by not treating flower complexity on its own right.
We think complexity is one of the ma- jor remaining frontiers in plant-animal interactions. This chapter has provided a simple example of the way an emergentist approach may suggest new avenues of research and complement previous findings in pollination ecology. An anonymous reviewer made important comments that improved substantially the quality of this manuscript. We are indebted to many people that contributed to data acquisition in the field. Gleditsch, , vol. Verlag Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig, Darwin and E. Harder and S. Barrett, Ecology and evolution of flowers. Oxford University Press Oxford, Botto-Mahan, and M.
Yoshioka, K. Ohashi, A. Konuma, H. Iwata, R.
Ohsawa, and S. Nattero, A. Cocucci, and R. Kaczorowski, A. Seliger, A.