The T. Seropositive individuals were detected in all groups except the children Table 3. The true T. All groups showed evidence of exposure to T. The WB-confirmed Toxocara spp. We detected evidence of exposure to all of the zoonotic parasites tested. These zoonotic parasites present a threat to human health and life quality, animal health and welfare, food safety, the economy, and the environment [ 1 , 32 , 33 ]. The results of this study call for higher awareness of zoonotic parasitic infections in Estonia. In our study, the seroprevalence was higher in the children than in adults.
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This is in contrast to an increase in seroprevalence with age that was observed in the Netherlands [ 34 ]. One possible explanation could be that exposure to this parasite would have increased recently in Estonia, but there are no direct data to support that. The higher seroprevalence in animal caretakers might be due to contact with Ascaris eggs in the agricultural environment. The seroprevalence in veterinarians was similar to that in veterinary surgeons in Turkey 2.
The data available on Echinococcus spp. We found no comparable data on T. Cysticercosis has been reported from Estonian pigs [ 44 ]. Toxocara spp. The burden caused by T. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence typically increases with age, indicating acquired infections. The high T. Contact with contaminated environment on farms [ 55 ] may partly explain the higher seroprevalence in farm workers.
High T. Trichinella spp. The sample sizes were adequate for estimating and comparing the seroprevalences. The general population samples were a good representation of the Estonian population. The children group only included samples from youngsters aged over 14 years; thus the seroprevalences in younger children remain unknown. The convenience samples from children, veterinarians, animal caretakers, and hunters may be limited by geographical representativeness; those interested in research activities and further professional education may be overrepresented.
Serology is an indirect detection method. For detecting chronic T. Detecting antibodies provides evidence of exposure and can indicate infection [ 57 ] and has been used in follow-up of patients. For example, patients with alveolar echinococcosis appear to maintain ELISA-seropositivity despite the intensity of the WB bands may fade during the follow-up, while a curative resection results in seronegativity in some patients in a few years [ 58 ].
We chose to investigate the presence of IgG antibodies because they are commonly long-lasting and suitable for epidemiological studies. However, investigating only one class of antibodies is a limitation of the study. The assays used are based on purified antigens, but some potential cross-reactions are listed by the manufacturer. Of the T. A majority One sample that had tested positive for antibodies against T. The methods were evaluated to be suitable for an epidemiological study, although communicating an individual result required explaining the main limitations of the methods used.
Informing the veterinarians, animal caretakers, and hunters of their results was evaluated to be an ethically reasoned choice.
These results provide baseline data, which can inform public health decision makers and suggest where further research and prevention efforts should be targeted. It is obvious that the zoonotic parasites circulating in Estonia reach also humans, but the locally relevant risk factors for encountering the parasites are currently largely unknown. People living in Estonia had evidence of having been exposed to several zoonotic parasites, which calls for evaluation of need of prevention strategies and higher awareness.
Antibodies against zoonotic parasites appeared to be formed already in childhood, indicating considerable infection pressure. The results suggest that zoonotic parasitic infections are underdiagnosed or underreported in Estonia. Data curation: MJ BL. Resources: IG.
Validation: BL MJ. Visualization: BL. Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Abstract We investigated Estonian population and its selected subgroups for serological evidence of exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides , Echinococcus spp. Data Availability: All relevant data can be found within the paper. Introduction Comprehensive studies on exposure to zoonotic parasites are needed [ 1 , 2 ]. There are no available reports of human infections with Toxocara spp. Setting Estonia is located in the north-eastern Europe and has a population of 1.
Exclusion of samples The database was searched for double entries: one sample from general population and one sample from animal caretakers persons involved with beef cattle were excluded. Statistical analyses The statistical analyses were performed using the free software OpenEpi [ 31 ]. Results Ascaris lumbricoides The A. Download: PPT. Table 1. Taenia solium The T. Table 3. Toxocara canis The T. Table 4. Toxoplasma gondii The T. Table 5. Trichinella spiralis The T. Table 6. Discussion We detected evidence of exposure to all of the zoonotic parasites tested.
Conclusions People living in Estonia had evidence of having been exposed to several zoonotic parasites, which calls for evaluation of need of prevention strategies and higher awareness. References 1. Multicriteria-based ranking for risk management of food-borne parasites. Microbiological Risk Assessment Series ; View Article Google Scholar 2. WHO estimates of the global burden of foodborne diseases: foodborne disease burden epidemiology reference group — View Article Google Scholar 3.
Transmission and epidemiology of zoonotic protozoal diseases of companion animals. Clin Microbiol Rev.
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PLoS Med. Presumed acquired ocular toxoplasmosis in deer hunters. Occupational health and safety in small animal veterinary practice: Part II—Parasitic zoonotic diseases. Can Vet J. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. Vet Parasitol. Cryptosporidium parvum infections in a cohort of veterinary students in Sweden.
Epidemiol Infect. Helminthologic survey of the wolf Canis lupus in Estonia, with an emphasis on Echinococcus granulosus. J Wildl Dis. Eimeria and Cryptosporidium in Estonian dairy farms in regard to age, species, and diarrhoea. Prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in Estonian cattle. First report of highly pathogenic Echinococcus granulosus genotype G1 in dogs in a European urban environment.
Parasit Vectors. Echinococcus infections in the Baltic region. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging wild boars hunted for human consumption in Estonia.
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Acta Vet. Statistics Estonia. Health Board. Nakkushaigused Eestis — European Food Safety Authority. The European Union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in EFSA Journal. View Article Google Scholar Pehk R Toksoplasmoosiuuringud Tartus.
Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Sweden, Estonia and Iceland. Scand J Infect Dis. Estonian Veterinary Board, Register of licenced veterinarians. Estonian Ministry of Environment, Hunting Department. Sergeant ESG. Epitools epidemiological calculators. Available: www. Disease burden of foodborne pathogens in the netherlands, Cyclospora cayetanensis. Dientamoeba fragilis. Entamoeba histolytica. Isospora belli. Phlebotomus , Lutzomyia — bite of several species of phlebotomine sandflies.
Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis PAM  . Rhinosporidium seeberi. Sarcocystis bovihominis , Sarcocystis suihominis. Toxoplasmosis Acute and Latent. Trichomonas vaginalis. Mexico , Central America, South America — 16—18 million. Tapeworm — Tapeworm infection. Cestoda , Taenia multiceps.
Diphyllobothrium latum. Echinococcus granulosus , Echinococcus multilocularis , E. Hymenolepiasis . Hymenolepis nana , Hymenolepis diminuta. Cysticercosis - Pork tapeworm. Bertiella mucronata , Bertiella studeri. Spirometra erinaceieuropaei. Clonorchis sinensis ; Clonorchis viverrini. Dicrocoelium dendriticum.
Liver fluke — Fasciolosis . Fasciola hepatica , Fasciola gigantica. Fasciolopsiasis — intestinal fluke . Fasciolopsis buski. Metorchis conjunctus. Opisthorchis viverrini , Opisthorchis felineus , Clonorchis sinensis. Paragonimus westermani ; Paragonimus africanus ; Paragonimus caliensis ; Paragonimus kellicotti ; Paragonimus skrjabini ; Paragonimus uterobilateralis.
Schistosomiasis — bilharzia, bilharziosis or snail fever all types. Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma intercalatum. Schistosoma haematobium. Schistosomiasis by Schistosoma japonicum. Schistosoma japonicum. Asian intestinal schistosomiasis. Trichobilharzia regenti , Schistosomatidae. Ancylostoma duodenale , Necator americanus. Anisakiasis . Roundworm — Parasitic pneumonia. Ascaris sp.
Ascaris lumbricoides. Roundworm — Baylisascariasis. Baylisascaris procyonis. Brugia malayi , Brugia timori. Dioctophyme renalis infection. Guinea worm — Dracunculiasis. Dracunculus medinensis. Pinworm — Enterobiasis. Enterobius vermicularis , Enterobius gregorii. Gnathostomiasis . Gnathostoma spinigerum , Gnathostoma hispidum. Halicephalobus gingivalis. Loa loa filariasis , Calabar swellings. Loa loa filaria. Tabanidae — horsefly, bites in the day. Mansonelliasis , filariasis. Mansonella streptocerca.
River blindness , onchocerciasis. Strongyloidiasis — Parasitic pneumonia. Strongyloides stercoralis. Thelazia californiensis , Thelazia callipaeda. Amiota Phortica variegata , Phortica okadai. Toxocara canis , Toxocara cati , Toxascaris leonina. Trichinella spiralis , Trichinella britovi , Trichinella nelsoni , Trichinella nativa. Trichuris trichiura , Trichuris vulpis.
Food-Borne Parasitic Zoonoses
Elephantiasis — Lymphatic filariasis. Wuchereria bancrofti. Archiacanthocephala , Moniliformis moniliformis. Oestroidea , Calliphoridae , Sarcophagidae. Screwworm , Cochliomyia. Cochliomyia hominivorax family Calliphoridae. Head louse — Pediculosis. Crab louse — Phthiriasis. Siphonaptera : Pulicinae. Cimicidae: Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus. Arachnida: Ixodidae and Argasidae.
Demodex — Demodicosis. Red mite — Gamasoidosis. Northern fowl mite — Gamasoidosis. Tropical fowl mite — Gamasoidosis. Tropical rat mite — Rodent mite dermatitis. Ornithonyssus bacoti. Laelaps echidnina. Liponyssoides sanguineus. A bacitracin susceptible: S. Clostridium spore -forming motile: Clostridium difficile Pseudomembranous colitis Clostridium botulinum Botulism Clostridium tetani Tetanus.
Mycoplasmataceae Ureaplasma urealyticum Ureaplasma infection Mycoplasma genitalium Mycoplasma pneumoniae Mycoplasma pneumonia. Actinomycetaceae Actinomyces israelii Actinomycosis Cutaneous actinomycosis Tropheryma whipplei Whipple's disease Arcanobacterium haemolyticum Arcanobacterium haemolyticum infection Actinomyces gerencseriae. Mycobacteriaceae M. Tick-borne Rickettsia rickettsii Rocky Mountain spotted fever Rickettsia conorii Boutonneuse fever Rickettsia japonica Japanese spotted fever Rickettsia sibirica North Asian tick typhus Rickettsia australis Queensland tick typhus Rickettsia honei Flinders Island spotted fever Rickettsia africae African tick bite fever Rickettsia parkeri American tick bite fever Rickettsia aeschlimannii Rickettsia aeschlimannii infection.
Brucellaceae Brucella abortus Brucellosis. Haemophilus : H. Leptospira Leptospira interrogans Leptospirosis. Chlamydophila Chlamydophila psittaci Psittacosis Chlamydophila pneumoniae. Mucorales Mucormycosis Rhizopus oryzae Mucor indicus Lichtheimia corymbifera Syncephalastrum racemosum Apophysomyces variabilis.
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Trypanosomatida Trypanosomiasis T. Diplomonadida Giardia lamblia Giardiasis.